Collaboration Resources


FAX test image for SATNET (1979).

The baby panda was scanned at University College London and used as a FAX test image for a demonstration of the DARPA Atlantic SATNET Program and the first transatlantic Internet connection in 1979. The computing system used for that demonstration was called the Fuzzball. As it happened, this was also the first Internet multimedia presentation and the first to use NTP in regular operation. The image was widely copied and used for testing throughout much of the 1980s.

Resources for Collaborative Experiments

We participate in many network experiments with our international partners in several countries. Some of these involve ongoing network performance evaluation and measurements with sites all over the world, others have specific goals and designated experiment plans. To support these experiments, we make available workstation and network resources to outside investigators. Some idea of the resources we can provide can be found in the Internet Research Laboratory page.

Software and Documentation Resources

Following is a hodgepodge of programs and other resources which may be helpful for adventuring in computer network time synchronization. Note that all software and documentation are now retrieved directly from the web. the security requirements of our campus FTP server preclude access from many places in the Internet.

In the case of software distributions, we have stashed both Unix-friendly (gz file extensions) compressed tar archives. Most documents are available in PostScript (.ps) and Adobe PDF (.pdf) formats; briefing slides are available in HTML (.htm or .html), PostScript (.ps), PowerPoint (.ppt) and PDF (.pdf)). Beware, some of these files, especially the PostScript ones, are rather large.

Important: Respect the copyright information included in each distribution.

Network Time Protocol (NTP) Version 4

The Network Time Protocol is used to synchrnize clocks in Unix, VMS and Windows systems in an estimated population of over 25 million computers in most countries and all continents of the world. The current NTP Version 4 and previous versions have been used for over 30 year in almost all computer embedded and software systems currently available.

The NTP Version 4 software distribution, documentation and configuration information is available at the NTP: The Network Time Protocol web site. An extensive review of the technology and application is avaialbe on the Network Time Synchronization Research Project page and the white papers on the panel at left.

The current NTP Version 4 protocol specification is at

NTP servers and clients can be protected using symmetric key cryptography and algorithms included in the public software distribution. The software distribution can be exported anywhere, since it does not include cryptographic algorithms subject to export control. However, the cryptographic algorithm interface is compatible with the OpenSSL cryptographic library, which is used by many ubiquitous applications, including TLS and SSH. As explained in the documentation, the SSL library can be obtained directly from the web site.

The Fuzzball


This is a compressed archive containing the source code used by the Fuzzball, a prototyping and test system used in the early Internet. The archive consists of four directories containing the source code in PDP11 assembler format. It can be built under the RT-11 operating system, either directly or in simulation. The system is described in:

jpgPrecision Radio Clock for WWV Transmissions


This is a program for the DSP-93, a digital signal processor system based on the Texas Instruments TMS320C25 DSP chip. The program works with an inexpensive shortwave receiver to receive, demodulate and decode signals broadcast by NIST radio stations WWV, Ft. Collins, CO, and WWVH, Kauai, HI. The system can provide an ASCII timecode suitable to set the clock on a computer with accuracy less than a millisecond. The principal advantage using the DSP approach is successful operation with very weak signals, such as with an indoor antenna far from the transmitters. Further details are in the technical report:

Gadget Box Level Converter

jpg adgegt.tar.gz

This is a compressed archive containing the schematics, artwork and related information for (a) a modem for the Canadian time/frequency radio service CHU, which can be used as a primary reference clock for NTP Version 2 and Version 3 daemons, and (b) a pulse shaper and line driver used to provide an external one-pulse-per-second signal from a radio clock to a serial port. See above and the NTP Version 3 distribution for an example of its use.

Unix Kernel Timekeeping Support


This is a compressed archive containing sample code segments and documentation for Unix kernel modifications which implement a precision, disciplined clock. The sample code segments, which involve no licensed code, can be incorporated in the timer interrupt routine of Unix workstations. Complete kernels with these modifications have been constructed for SunOS, Ultrix, HP-UX, Digital OSF/1 and Linux kernels. Since these modifications involve licensed code, they are available only from the manufacturer's representatives. A technical report is also available:

Spectracom 8170 WWVB Receiver


PSTI/Traconex 1020 WWV/H Receiver

DIPswitch Settings

LORAN-C Stabilized Precision Oscillator



LORAN-C Receiver PC Card and Oscillator Unit

This is a compressed archive containing the schematics, artwork and documentation for a computer-controlled LORAN-C timing receiver used as a precision source of standard time. The device is designed as an ISA bus peripheral for a PC. It provides a variety of signals useful for calibrating precision time equipment to an accuracy and stability of a few parts in 1010. A technical report is available:

ICOM Radio Controller


This is a compressed archive containing a C-language program to control HF/VHF radios made by the ICOM Corporation. It can be used interactively or run from a shell script to adjust the frequency, mode and related parameters of one or more radios connected to the CI-V local network. It can also be used in conjunction with the MINIMUF distribution below to automatically tune radios as propagation conditions change throughout the seasons and hours.

MINIMUF Program for HF Radio Propagation Predictions


This is a compressed archive containing a C-language program that computes high frequency radio propagation data between two geographic locations on the Earth. It is useful in setting propagation-delay switches on radio clocks. It can be used interactively or in a shell script in conjunction with the ICOM distribution above to automatically tune radios as propagation conditions change throughout the seasons and hours.

DSP Software Modem for RTTY and SITOR signals


This is a compressed archive containing the program and documentation for an advanced linear receiver for radiotelegraph signals. The program is written for the TI TMS320C25 and the DSP-93 digital modem available from the Tucson Amateur Packet Radio organization (TAPR) (see picture above). A technical report is available: