Protocol · Engineering · Laboratory
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Research supported by ARL - CTA Program, and CISCO's University Partnership Program



Innovative Transport Layer Protocols

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
Partial Order Transport Service for Multimedia and Other Applications
Related Publications

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Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)

The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport protocol, existing at an equivalent level as UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which currently provide transport layer functions to all of the main Internet applications. SCTP has been approved by the IETF as a Proposed Standard RFC 4460. As with TCP, SCTP provides a reliable transport service, ensuring that data is delievered from to the receiver without error and in the same sequence as transmitted. As with TCP, SCTP is a connection-oriented mechanism, meaning that a relationship is created between the endpoints of an SCTP session prior to data being transmitted, and this relationship is maintained until all data transmission has been successfully completed.

Unlike TCP, SCTP provides a number of functions that are considered critical for signaling transport, and which at the same time can provide transport benefits to other applications requiring additional performance and reliability. Two core innovative servces of SCTP are multistreaming and multihoming. For further details about SCTP, see SCTP: An Overview or SCTP for Beginners.

In our lab, we are currently working on the following projects:

    Chrome-SPDY over SCTP
    As part of their "Let's make the web faster" initiative, Google is experimenting with alternative protocols to reduce the latency when downloading web pages. One of these experiments is SPDY (pronounced "SPeeDY"), an application-layer protocol for transporting content over the web, designed specifically for reducing latency when Chrome, Google’s browser that competes with Internet Explorer and Firefox. For the past decade, Professor Amer and his students in UD’s Protocol Engineering Laboratory have been developing the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). SCTP is an innovative transport protocol, existing at an equivalent level as UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which currently provide transport layer functions to all of today’s Internet applications. As with TCP, SCTP provides a reliable transport service, ensuring that data is delivered from to the receiver without error and in the same sequence as transmitted. As with TCP, SCTP is a connection-oriented mechanism, meaning that a relationship is created between the endpoints of an SCTP session prior to data being transmitted, and this relationship is maintained until all data transmission has been successfully completed. Unlike TCP, SCTP provides a number of functions that are considered critical for signaling transport, and which at the same time can provide transport benefits to other applications requiring additional performance and reliability. Two core innovative services of SCTP are multistreaming and multihoming. Sponsored by a $50K gift from Google, Professor Amer will collaborate with Google researchers by investigating the performance of Chrome-SPDY over SCTP, and comparing results with Google’s experiments using Chrome-SPDY over TCP. The goal is to demonstrate that features of SCTP that are unavailable in TCP can further improve Chrome-SPDY’s latency gains and/or fault tolerance.
    HTTP over SCTP Multistreaming
    TCP is the traditional reliable transport protocol for HTTP-based network applications. We argue that SCTP's improved features such as multistreaming, and protection against DoS attacks make SCTP an ideal web transport. Recently, we proposed a design for HTTP over SCTP streams, and implemented HTTP/SCTP in the open source Apache web server and Firefox web browser. Our experiments over an emulated network using Dummynet reveal that SCTP's enhanced loss recovery improves web page download times for HTTP 1.1 persistent with pipelined transfers over high latency end-to-end paths. A multistreamed web transport's primary contribution to minimize response times is concurrent rendering, where multiple pipelined objects can be displayed in an interleaved fashion at the web browser. We explore the parameter space where concurrent rendering causes visually perceivable improvements to pipelined objects' response times. Concurrent rendering's dramatic improvements while downloading progressive images can be viewed at
  • Movie animations comparing HTTP over TCP vs. HTTP over SCTP
  • Transport Layer Reneging
    A TCP or SCTP data receiver informs a data sender about out-of-order arrived data using Selective Acks (SACK [RFC2018]) mechanism. Thus the data sender sometimes can avoid retransmitting SACKed data during loss recovery. SACK information is "advisory"; SACKed data cannot be discarded from the data sender's send buffer until acked by a cumulative ack because it is permitted for a data receiver to discard previously SACKed data, for example, when the operating system is running out of memory. This "sacking and then discarding" is known as reneging. If no reneging occurs, the SACKed data stored in the send buffer is unnecessary. Our research tries to identify if reneging actually happens in practice. We have downloaded publicly available anonymized Internet traces from CAIDA. containing more than 50M TCP flows. For those TCP flows that employ SACKs, we capture the view of SACKed data of the data receiver. We compare each new SACK to the captured view to see if they are consistent. If reneging occurs, a SACK block reported previously will disappear or shrink. Another way to examine reneging is via SNMP. For example, the LINUX operating system has a LINUX-MIB which extends the TCP-MIB, and there are some built-in objects such as LINUX_MIB_PRUNECALLED which will be incremented if reneging occurred. We are working on an extension to SCTP-MIB agent on FreeBSD to report SCTP reneging. Another aspect of this research is to identify TCP stack implementations of major operating systems that have built-in mechanisms for reneging.
    Misbehaviors in TCP SACK Generation
    While analyzing CAIDA Internet traces of TCP traffic to detect instances of data reneging, we frequently observed seven misbehaviors in the generation of SACKs. For example, in one case, when the cumulative ACK is increased beyond the first SACK block, a data receiver misbehaved and did not selectively acknowledge the second SACK block. These misbehaviors could result in a data sender mistakenly thinking data reneging occurred. With another misbehavior, the worst case could result in a data sender receiving a SACK for data that was transmitted but never received. Our research presents a methodology and its application to test a wide range of operating systems using TBIT to fingerprint which ones misbehave in each of the seven ways. You can download the patch file www.eecis.udel.edu/~amer/PEL/tbit-tests/tbit-update.patch to update tbit-1.0 www.icir.org/tbit/tbit-1.0.tar.gz to include new TBIT tests to detect misbehaving TCP stacks. Also you can find the collected trace files for 27 operating systems tested at www.eecis.udel.edu/~amer/PEL/tbit-tests/tbit-tests-SACK-Generation-Misbehavior.tar. Measuring the performance loss due to SACK generation misbehaviors is outside the scope of our research; the goal is to document the misbehaviors so they may be corrected. One can conclude that the handling of SACKs while simple in concept is complex to implement. [Read More]
    WWW over SCTP
    We are modifiying the popular open source browser Firefox, to support HTTP over SCTP. The current activity is focused on adding support for SCTP to the Netscape Portable Runtime API (NSPR), which is used to support Firefox. The goal is to provide support on all NSPR supported platforms and have the modifications accepted into the NSPR distribution. Subsequent work will focus on modifying Firefox to run HTTP over SCTP, using the SCTP API calls added to NSPR.
    Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs)
    For both TCP and SCTP, out-of-order data is acknowledged with Selective Acks(SACKs). Currently for both protocols, SACK information is advisory; SACKs notify a data sender about the reception of out-of-order data, but since a receiver is permitted to later discard the data (ie, reneg), the sender must keep a copy of the data in its buffer for possible retransmission until the data is cumulatively acked. SCTP and TCP treat out-of-order data differently. In TCP, out-of-order data CANNOT be delivered to a receiving application until all data up to that point is received in-order. In multistreamed SCTP, out-of-order data CAN be delivered to a receiving application if the data is in-sequence within its stream. Similarly SCTP allows an application to specify data as unordered (a feature that is unavailable in TCP), which also can be delivered to the receiving application immediately upon arrival at the transport receiver. Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs) allow a receiver to inform the sender of delivered data. (Note: Delevered data by definition cannot be reneged!) NR-SACKs thus allow the data sender to remove those data from the sender's retransmission buffer. NR-SACKs can also be used to acknowledge undelivered data that in the case that a receiver guarantees never to reneg. We have specified Internet Draft: 'draft-natarajan-tsvwg-sctp-nrsack' - SCTP Data Acknowledgment with Non-Renegable Selective Acknowledgments (NR-SACKs), and are currently investigating the circumstances under which NR-SACKs improve end-to-end throughput.
    Recent projects include the following:
    Mobile SCTP
    Inter-working of future heterogeneous radio access networks within the concept of all-IP beyond 3G wireless data networks will pose many technical challenges, with mobility management being one of the most important. We survey mobile Stream Control Transmission Protocol (mSCTP) in context of transport-layer handoff management, as one of most relevant schemes being currently studied. We identify the key scenarios, where the protocol can effectively leverage the multihoming feature to enhance handover support. Finding the basic SCTP's failover mechanism inadequate for mobility applications, the main challenging issue is to provide suitable path-transition optimization by considering link-layer support, as well as introducing concurrent multipath transfer (CMT) into mSCTP-based mobility schemes. Our experiments scope not only on providing a set of triggering rules that help to choose when to switch the paths, but also on evaluating the possible gain in making such a decision at the transport layer. Furthermore we compare the gain that can be introduced by using CMT (CMT-PF) in such mobility scenarios See L. Budzisz, R. Ferrus, K.-J. Grinnemo, A. Brunstrom, R. Fracchia, G. Galante, F. Casadevall, Towards Transport-layer Mobility: Evolution of SCTP Multihoming, Computer Communications, 31(5), 3/08
    CMT with the Potentially-failed Destination State (CMT-PF)
    Recent research on Concurrent Multipath Transfer using SCTP multihoming (CMT) proposed various retransmission policies to minimize the negative impacts of congestion-induced receiver buffer (rbuf) blocking. The proposed retransmission policies do not consider failure-induced rbuf blocking in CMT. We investigated CMT's throughput degradation during path failures, and proposed CMT with a Potentially-failed destination state (CMT-PF) to improve performance. Ns-2 simulation results show that CMT-PF outperforms CMT during permanent and short-term failures. During non-failure scenarios, CMT-PF performs better than CMT when the paths experience asymmetric rbuf blocking conditions. In light of our findings, we recommend that CMT be replaced by CMT-PF in existing and future CMT implementations and RFCs.
    Adaptive Failover
    SCTP supports multihoming at the transport layer to allow SCTP associations to remain alive even when an endpoint's IP address becomes unreachable. SCTP has a built-in failure detection and recovery system, known as failover, which allows associations to dynamically send traffic to an alternate peer IP address when needed. SCTP's failover mechanism is static and does not adapt to application requirements or network conditions.  We are developing an adaptive failover mechanism. [Read More]
    Concurrent Multipath Transfer (CMT)
    With the provisioning for multihoming in SCTP, we demonstrate that end-to-end CMT can be performed at the transport layer.  Being better informed than the application layer about the end-to-end paths, the transport layer can perform fine-grain load sharing. We foresee issues in areas such as congestion control and loss detection and recovery. We are investigating (1) end-to-end techniques for shared bottleneck detection to aid in performing correct congestion control during CMT, and (2) algorithms for scheduling traffic on the multiple paths. [Read More]

    Multiple File Transfer using SCTP Multistreaming
    We identify overheads associated with FTP, attributed to separate TCP connections for data and control, non-persistence of the data connections, and the sequential nature of command exchanges. Solutions to avoid these overheads using TCP place an undue burden on the application.  We modify FTP to use SCTP and its multistreaming service. FTP over SCTP avoids the identified overheads in the current FTP protocol without introducing complexity at the application, while still remaining TCP-friendly. We implemented FTP over SCTP in three ways: (1) simply replacing TCP calls with SCTP calls, thus using one SCTP association for control and one SCTP association for each data transfer, (2) using a single multistreamed SCTP association for control and all data transfers, and (3) enhancing (2) with the addition of command pipelining. Our experiments compared these 3 variations with the classic FTP over TCP. Results indicate significant improvements in throughput for multiple file transfers combining SCTP's feature of multistreaming with command pipelining. More generally, this research encourages the use of SCTPs innovative services, such as multistreaming, to benefit existing and future application performance. [Read More]

    SCTP Shim for Legacy TCP Applications
    We are modifying the transport layer of TCP- and SCTP-capable freeBSD systems to invisibly translate application-layer calls to the TCP API into corresponding SCTP API calls. SCTP would then replace TCP as the end-to-end transport protocol used for communication between the source and destination. This approach would provide legacy FCS TCP applications the beneficial features of SCTP that are not provided by TCP, such as multihoming's fault tolerance, concurrent multipath transfer, extensive SACK support, and multistreaming.  With an SCTP shim, these features could enhance communications without making any modifications to the legacy TCP applications. 


U.S. Army Collaborative Technology Alliance

At UD, we are investigating SCTP to evaluate its use within army networks. For the period May 2001 until May 2009, the CISC and ECE Departments will be part of a new US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA) in Communications and Networking. This CTA brings together a total of seventeen university and industrial partners to collaborate in four general research areas: Survivable Wireless Mobile Networks, Signal Processing for Communications-on-the-Move, Secure Jam-Resistant Communications, and Tactical Information Protection. Principal investigators directing UD's research effort are CISC Professors Paul Amer, Errol Lloyd, and Adarsh Sethi, and ECE Professors Gonzalo Arce and Stephan Bohacek.

The Army has allocated $76.3M for the Communications and Networking Alliance; $44.3M for the first five years and $32M for an optional three additional years. Of those totals, the University of Delaware will receive a projected $3.5M for the first five years and a total of $6M if the Army exercises the optional three-year period. These amounts will be equally divided among the CISC and ECE departments. These funds support approximately fifteen graduate research assistants each year.

The Army Research Laboratory's strategy is to exploit commercial technology and expertise by establishing industrial/academic consortia that work closely with ARL scientists and engineers to help fulfill critical Army modernization objectives. UD is one of fourteen Consortium Members that include industrial partners - Telcordia, BBN Technologies, BAE Systems (previously Lockheed-Sanders) , General Dyanamics (previously Motorola), and Network Associates; and university partners - City College of New York, and U. of Maryland, Princeton, Clark Atlanta, Georgia Tech, U. of Minnisota, Johns Hopkins, and Morgan State.  Additional subcontracts go to: Cornell,  U.C. Riverside, Washington U., New Mexcio State, and U. Michigan.

The history of the CTA program actually began in 1996 when ARL initiated a new strategy that focused in-house laboratory research on Army-specific business areas while establishing extramural centers of research in areas where state-of-the-art expertise could be leveraged to satisfy Army technology needs. The combination of government in-house, industry, and academic components striving together for excellence created a new paradigm for Army research - a "federated laboratory". From 1996-2001, UD's CISC and ECE Departments shared $3.1M as part of the ARL's first FEDLAB program called ATIRP - Advanced Telecommunications and Information Distribution Research Program. Considered an overwhelming success, the FEDLAB program was widely recognized and was awarded the Hammer Award for Reinventing Government by then Vice President Al Gore. ARL decided to capitalize on FEDLAB's success by expanding and improving the concept with the creation of Collaborative Technology Alliances.

This CTA grant is significant to the CISC Department, representing the largest single contract the department has ever received. Being part of the winning alliance proposal demonstrates how strongly and how successfully the CISC and ECE departments have collaborated. CISC and ECE have worked closely together ever since they received an NSF equipment grant to establish a joint EE-CIS computing facility in 1985 that connected three DEC VAX machines with one of the world's first Ethernets.


Partial Order Transport Service for Multimedia and Other Applications
A Partial Order Connection (POC) transport layer service/protocol (published as RFC 1693) has been designed. Unlike classic transport services that deliver objects either in the exact order transmitted or according to no particular order, POC provides a partial order service; that is, a service that requires some, but not all objects to be received in the order transmitted. 

Two versions of POC have been proposed: reliable, which requires that all transmitted objects are eventually delivered, and unreliable, which permits the service to lose a subset of the objects. In the unreliable version, objects are more finely categorized into one of several reliability classes depending on their temporal value. 

POC has been formally specified in Estelle and its performance has been investigated via analytic modeling, an OPNET simulation, and an implementation based on a modified TCP. 


Related Publications 
 
Authors Title Published Paper
N. Ekiz
P. Amer
Transport layer reneging Computer Communications, 52, 10/14, p82-88
PDF
F. Yang
P. Amer
Using one-way communication delay for in-order arrival MPTCP scheduling 9th EAI ChinaCom 2014, Maoming, CN, 8/14
PDF
F. Yang
Q. Wang
P. Amer
Out-of-order transmission for in-order arrival scheduling for MPTCP PAMS 2014, Victoria, CA 5/14
PDF
F. Yang
P. Amer
N. Ekiz
A scheduler for MPTCP 22nd IEEE ICCCN 2013, Nassau, BS, 8/13
PDF
N. Ekiz
P. Amer
F. Yang
Causing remote hosts to reneg 7th IEEE PMECT 2013, Nassau, BS, 8/13
PDF
F. Yang
P. Amer
Non-renegable selective acks (NR-SACKs) for MPTCP PAMS 2013, Barcelona 3/13
PDF
N. Ekiz Transport layer reneging PhD Dissertation, CIS Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2012
PDF
F. Yang
P. Amer
J. Leighton
A methodology to derive SPDY's initial dictionary for zlib compression CISC Dept Technical Report, 2011
PDF
I. Aydin
J. Iyengar
P. Conrad
C. Shen
P. Amer
Evaluating TCP-friendliness in light of concurrent multipath transfer Computer Networks, 56(7), 5/12
PDF
J. Li
M. Manley
M. Veeraraghavan
R. Williams
M. Reisslein
P. Amer
J. Leighton
A less-is-more architecture (LIMA) for a future Internet 15th IEEE Global Internet Symposium, Orlando, 3/12
PDF
L. Bertaux
P. Berthou
T. Gayraud
P. Amer
Geo-localization to enhance SCTP handover in public transports between satellites and WLANs 17th Ka and Broadband Comm Conf, Palermo, Italy, 10/11
PDF
N. Ekiz
A. Rahman
P. Amer
Misbehaviors in TCP SACK generation ACM Computer Communications Review, 41(2), 4/11 [Awarded 2011 Applied Networking Research Prize - http://irtf.org/anrp]
PDF
N. Ekiz
P. Amer
A model for detecting transport layer data reneging PFLDNeT 2010, Lancaster, PA, 11/10
PDF
N. Ekiz
P. Amer
P. Natarajan
R. Stewart
J. Iyengar
SCTP data acknowledgement with non-renegable selective acks (NR-SACKs) IETF Internet Draft - draft-natarajan-tsvwg-sctp-nrsack
TXT
E. Yilmaz
N. Ekiz
P. Natarajan
P. Amer
J. Leighton
F. Baker
R. Stewart
Throughput analysis of non-renegable selective acknowledgments (NR-SACKs) for SCTP Computer Communications, 33(16), 10/10, p1982-91
PDF
P. Natarajan
F. Baker
P. Amer
J. Leighton
SCTP: What, Why, and How IEEE Internet Computing, 13(5), 9/09
DOI
PS
P. Natarajan Leveraging transport services for improved application performance PhD Dissertation, CIS Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2009
[Winner of UD 2009 Theodore Wolf Prize for the outstanding dissertation in Physical and Life Sciences.]
PDF
L. Budzisz
R. Ferrus
F. Casadeval
P. Amer
On concurrent multipath transfer in SCTP-based handover scenarios ICC 2009, Dresden, 6/09
PDF
P. Natarajan
N. Ekiz
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer during path failure Computer Communications, 32(15), 5/09, p1557-87
PDF
P. Natarajan
N. Ekiz
E. Yilmaz
P. Amer
J. Iyengar
R. Stewart
Non-renegable selective acks (NR-SACKs) for SCTP ICNP 2008, Orlando, 10/08
PDF
P. Natarajan
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Multistreamed web transport for high latency networks 2nd ACM SIGCOMM NSDR Workshop, 10/08
PDF
P. Natarajan
N. Ekiz
P. Amer
J. Iyengar
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer using SCTP multihoming: Introducing the potentially-failed destination state Networking 2008, Singapore, 5/08
PDF
R. Bickhart
P. Amer
R. Stewart
TCP-to-SCTP translation shim layer in the FreeBSD kernel EuroBSDCon2007, Copenhagen, 5/07
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Performance implications of a bounded receive buffer in concurrent multipath transfer Computer Communications, 30(4), 2/07, p818-829
PDF
R. Stewart
I. Rodriguez 
K. Poon 
A. Caro 
M. Tuexen
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Specification Errata and Issues IETF RFC4460, 4/06
TXT
P. Natarajan
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer Using Transport layer multihoming: Performance during network failures MILCOM 2006, Wash, DC, 10/06
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer using SCTP multihoming over independent end-to-end paths IEEE/ACM Trans on Networking, 14(5), 10/06
PDF
J. Iyengar Concurrent multipath transfer using SCTP multihoming PhD Dissertation, CIS Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2006
PDF
P. Natarajan
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
SCTP: An innovative transport layer protocol for the web WWW 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland, 5/06
PDF
A. Caro
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Retransmission policies for multihomed transport protocols Computer Communications, 29(10), 6/06, p1798-1810
PDF
A. Caro
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Rethinking end-to-end failover transport layer multihoming Annals of Telecommunications, 61(1-2), 1/06
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Receive buffer blocking in concurrent multipath transfer IEEE Globecom 2005, St. Louis, 11/05
PDF
R. Bickhart SCTP shim for legacy TCP applications MS Thesis, CIS Dept, Univ of Delaware, 8/2005
PDF
A. Caro End-to-end fault tolerance using transport layer multihoming PhD Dissertation, CIS Dept, Univ of Delaware, 8/2005
PDF
P. Natarajan
P. Amer
R. Bickhart
S. Ladha
Corrections on: Improving multiple file transfers using SCTP multistreaming NOTE: This paper corrects invalid results originally publsihed in IPCCC 2004.  (PDA 6-6-05)
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer using SCTP multihoming tech report
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Retransmission policies for concurrent multipath using SCTP multihoming IEEE ICON 2004, Singapore, 11/04 
PDF
A. Caro
P. Amer
R. Stewart
End-to-end failover thresholds for transport layer multihoming MILCOM 2004, Monterey, 11/04
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer using transport layer multihoming: Performance under varying bandwidth proportions MILCOM 2004, Monterey, 11/04
PDF
A. Caro
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Retransmission schemes for end-to-end failover with transport layer multihoming GLOBECOM 2004, Dallas, 11/04
PDF
S. Ladha
P. Amer
A. Caro
J. Iyengar
On the prevalence and evaluation of recent TCP enhancements GLOBECOM 2004, Dallas, 11/04 
PDF
R. Stewart
P. Amer
SCTP Internet Society Brief 17, 6/04
PDF
J. Iyengar
K. Shah
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent multipath transfer using SCTP multihoming SPECTS '04, San Jose, 7/04 
PDF
S. Ladha
S. Bauke
R. Ludwig
P. Amer
On Making SCTP Robust to Spurious Retransmissions  ACM Computer Communication Review, 34(2), 4/04
PDF
S. Ladha
P. Amer
Improving multiple file transfers using SCTP multistreaming NOTE: The original IPCCC results were invalid; corrected results are now available (PDA 6-6-05)
Corrected results appear here
IPCCC '04, Phoenix, AZ, 4/04
 
A. Caro
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
G. Heinz
S. Ladha
K. Shah
SCTP: A Proposed Standard for Robust Internet Data Transport IEEE Computer, 36(11), 11/03, 56-63
PDF
J. Iyengar
K. Shah
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Concurrent Multipath Transfer Using SCTP Multihoming Tech Report 2004-02, CISC Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2003
PDF
G. Heinz Priorities in SCTP Multistreaming MS Thesis, Tech Report 2004-01, CISC Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2003
PDF
A. Caro
K. Shah
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
R. Stewart
SCTP and TCP Variants: Congestion Control Under Multiple
Losses
Tech Report 2003-04, CISC Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2003
PDF
S. Ladha
P. Amer
A. Caro
J. Iyengar
Improving file transfer in FCS networks MILCOM '03, Boston, MA, 10/03
PDF
A. Caro
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Transport layer multihoming for fault tolerance in FCS networks MILCOM '03, Boston, MA, 10/03
PDF
A. Caro
P. Amer
R. Stewart
Retransmission policies with transport layer multihoming ICON '03, Sydney, Australia, 9/03
PDF
J. Iyengar
A. Caro
P. Amer
G. Heinz
R. Stewart
Making SCTP more robust to changeover SPECTS '03, Montreal, Canada, 7/03
PDF
A. Caro
J. Iyengar
P. Amer
G. Heinz
Using SCTP Multihoming for Fault Tolerance and Load Balancing SIGCOMM 2002 Student Poster - ACM Computer Communication Review, 32(3), 7/02
ABS
PDF
J. Iyengar
P. Amer 
R. Stewart 
I. Rodriguez 
Preventing SCTP Congestion Window Overgrowth During Changeover  IETF Internet Draft (work in progress) draft-iyengar-sctp-cacc-01.txt  TXT
J. Iyengar 
A. Caro 
P. Amer 
G. Heinz 
R. Stewart
Making SCTP More Robust to Changeover Tech Report 2003-01, CISC Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2002 PDF
PS
S. Iren
P. Amer 
Application Level Framing Applied to Image Compression  Annals of Telecommunications,57(5), 5/02
PS
P. Conrad 
G. Heinz 
A. Caro 
P. Amer
J. Fiore
SCTP in Battlefield Networks MILCOM '01, Washington, DC, 10/01
PDF
P. Conrad 
A. Caro 
P. Amer
ReMDoR: Remote Multimedia Document Retrieval Over Partial Order Transport ACM Multimedia '01, Ottawa, Canada, 9/01
PDF
P. Conrad Partial order/reliability transport for multimedia applications PhD Dissertation, CIS Dept, Univ of Delaware, 2000
PDF-zip
S. Iren Network-Conscious Image Compression PhD Dissertation, CIS Dept, Univ. of Delaware, 1999
 PS-gzip
A. Caro 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
G. Heinz
Improving Multimedia Performance Over Lossy Networks via SCTP ATIRP '01, College Park, MD, 3/01
PS
A. Caro 
P. Amer 
S. Iren 
P. Conrad
Web-Integrating Network-Conscious Image Transmission ATIRP '00, College Park, MD, 3/00 PDF
PS
S. Iren
P. Amer 
SPIHT-NC: Network-conscious zerotree encoding 2000 Data Compression Conf., Snowbird, UT, 3/00 PDF
PS
S. Iren 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad
The Transport Layer: Tutorial and Survey ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4), 12/99
PDF-1
PDF-2
PS-1
PS-2
M. Steinder 
S. Iren 
P. Amer
Progressively Authenticated Image Transmission MILCOM '99, Atlantic City, NJ, 11/99 PDF
PS
P. Amer 
S. Iren 
G. Sezen 
P. Conrad 
M. Taube 
A. Caro
Network-conscious GIF image transmission over Internet Computer Networks, 31(7),  4/99 PDF
PS
S. Iren 
P. Amer 
A. Caro 
P. Conrad 
G. Sezen 
M. Taube
Network-conscious compressed image transmission over battlefield networks MILCOM '98, Boston, MA, 10/98 PDF
PS
P. Conrad 
P. Amer 
M. Taube 
G. Sezen 
S. Iren 
A. Caro
Testing environment for innovative transport protocols MILCOM '98, Boston, MA, 10/98 PDF
PS
S. Iren 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad
NETCICATS: Network-conscious image compression and transmission system Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1508, Springer Verlag, 9/98 PDF
PS
S. Iren 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad
Network-conscious compressed images over wireless networks Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1483,  Springer Verlag, 9/98 PDF
PS
R. Marasli 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad
Metrics for quantifying partially ordered transport services 6th Int'l Conf. on Telecommunication Systems, Nashville, 3/98  
E. Golden  TRUMP - Timed Reliable Unordered Message Protocol  CISC Dept MS Thesis, 12/97   
R. Marasli 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad
Partially reliable transport service  IEEE ISCC '97 - 2nd Symp. on Computers and Communications, Alexandria, Egypt, 7/97  PDF
PS
P. Conrad 
P. Amer 
E. Golden 
S. Iren 
R. Marasli 
A. Caro 
Transport QoS over unreliable networks: no guarantees, no free lunch!  5th Workshop on QoS, Columbia Univ., 5/97  PDF
PS
R. Marasli 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
An analytic study of partially ordered transport services  Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 29(6), 5/97  PDF
PS
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
E. Golden 
S. Iren 
A. Caro 
Partially ordered, partially reliable transport service for multimedia applications  ATIRP '97, College Park, MD, 1/97 PDF
PS
R. Marasli 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
Optimizing partially ordered transport services for multimedia applications  Multimedia Modeling: Towards The Information Superhighway, (Courtiat, Diaz, Senac, eds), World Scientific Pub Co, 1996  PDF
PS
R. Marasli 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
Retransmission-based partially reliable transport service: An analytic model  IEEE INFOCOM 96, San Francisco, 3/96, 621-629  PDF
PS
P. Conrad
E. Golden 
P. Amer 
R. Marasli 
A multimedia document retrieval system using partially ordered, partially reliable transport service  Multimedia and Computing Networking '96, San Jose, CA, 1/96 PDF
PS
P. Conrad 
P. Amer 
R. Marasli 
Graceful degradation of multimedia documents via partial order and partial reliability transport protocols  IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Synchronization, Virginia, 5/95  PDF
PS
T. Connolly 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
An Extension to TCP: Partial Order Service.  IETF RFC 1693, 11/94 
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R. Marasli 
P. Amer 
P. Conrad 
G. Burch 
Partial order transport service: an analytic model  9th IEEE Workshop on Computer Communications, Marathon, FL, 10/94 PDF
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P. Amer
T. Connolly 
C. Chassot 
P. Conrad
M. Diaz 
Partial order transport service for multimedia and other applications  IEEE/ACM Trans on Networking, 2(5), 10/94  PDF
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M. Diaz 
A. Lozes 
C. Chassot 
P. Amer 
Partial order connections: a new concept for high speed and multimedia services and protocols.  Annals of Telecommunications, 49(5-6), 5/94   
P. Amer 
C. Chassot 
T. Connolly 
M. Diaz 
Partial order transport service for multimedia applications: Unreliable service  INET '93, 3rd International Networking Conf., San Francisco, 8/93   
P. Amer 
C. Chassot 
T. Connolly
M. Diaz 
Partial order transport service for multimedia applications: Reliable service  2nd Conf. on High Performance Distributed Computing, Spokane, WA, 7/93  

Comments or Questions? E-mail Professor Paul D. Amer (amer at cis(dot)udel(dot)edu)
(Last updated Jan 2012)